Research-Dense Article on Benefits of Bone Broth.
For those who would like a comprehensive account on the benefits of bone broth, Chris Kresser has put together a wonderful article that I thought would be great to share with you.
The Bountiful Benefits of Bone Broth: A Comprehensive Guide
In traditional cooking, people often use meat bones as a base for delicious stock. Aside from being the secret to the great dish, bone broth is also incredibly nutritious and has scores of health benefits. Read on to learn more about bone broth benefits and why you should make this fantastic drink a staple in your diet.
The Weston A. Price Foundation and advocates of the Paleo and Primal lifestyles favor bone broth for its wide array of nutrients that are difficult to find in any other food source. In her book, Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, Dyspraxia, A.D.D., Dyslexia, A.D.H.D., Depression, Schizophrenia, Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride has made bone and meat stock the foundation of the GAPS protocol because of its ability to heal and seal the gut lining and reduce overgrowth of harmful microbes. Broth made from chicken bones may also reduce the migration of immune cells during sickness. These are just some of the many reasons to love bone broth.
Bone Broth in Traditional Cultures
A South American proverb says, “Good broth will resurrect the dead.” While this is indeed a stretch of the imagination, the ability of broth—and chicken broth, in particular—to treat the common cold has long been touted as ancient folk wisdom.
Scientists at the University of Nebraska sought to test this folklore in 2000 and found that in vitro (in a Petri dish), some components of chicken soup were able to inhibit the migration of innate immune cells called neutrophils, effectively acting as an anti-inflammatory that could, in theory, reduce symptoms of illness. Whether this effect occurs in vivo (in a living organism) is still unclear, but this preliminary data suggests that our ancestors may have been onto something. We’ll explore how bone broth benefits the immune system more in a later section.
The Global Appeal of This Superfood
Evidence of the existence of soup dates back 20,000 years. It’s well-accepted that broth of some sort was, and remains, a staple in many traditional cultures. In Danish and German literature, large hens were reserved explicitly for making soup, and the cooked meat was retained for other dishes or added back to the soup. In East Asian diets, dishes like miso sometimes contain meat stock. In Greece, beaten eggs mixed with lemon are commonly added to the chicken broth as a traditional remedy for colds and digestive upset. Chicken soup in Hungary usually included organ meats, like chicken liver and heart, while in Vietnam and the Philippines, beef bone marrow was used as the base for making beef bone broth. In India, chicken soup is popularly sold by roadside vendors in the winter and takes on many different forms.
Chicken soup was a traditional dish of Jewish kitchens. It has even been called “Jewish penicillin” and is used to treat and prevent illness. In the American tradition, chicken soup was prepared using old hens that were too tough to be roasted or cooked but still made excellent soup. Unfortunately, the only soup that most Americans eat today is canned, highly processed, and devoid of nutrients.
Unlocking Bone Broth Benefits With Nose-to-Tail Eating
A core component of functional medicine is using whole foods to nourish your body and get the nutrients you need to stay healthy. Traditional cultures achieved this by practicing nose-to-tail eating and consuming all parts of the animal, including the:
- Other gelatin-rich cuts of meat
This provided a balanced intake of all the amino acids necessary to build and maintain essential structures in the human body. Some anthropologists have even suggested that in some regions of the world, early humans were scavengers rather than hunters, using tools to crack open the bones of carcasses left by lions and other large predators to expose the fatty bone marrow.
Unfortunately, many modern cultures have lost the practice of whole-animal eating. The age-old tradition of having a hot pot of bone broth regularly cooking on the hearth has been lost in favor of modern convenience, microwaves, and highly processed canned soups. Bringing bone broth back into the contemporary diet offers an easy and delicious means of obtaining the nutrition from parts of the animal that traditional cultures prized.
A Nutrient-Rich Gold Mine
Bones contain an abundance of minerals as well as 17 different amino acids, many of which are found in bone broth as proteins like collagen and gelatin. Though the exact nutritional content varies based on the bones used, cooking time, and cooking method, the following nutrients are consistently found in most bone broths.
With 28 different types, collagen makes up about 30 percent of the protein in your body. It’s the main component of connective tissues like:
It is also present in the blood vessels, cornea, and the lens of the eye. The name collagen comes from the Greek “kólla,” meaning “glue,” and the suffix “-gen,” which means “producing.” Early glue was made from collagen more than 8,000 years ago, likely by boiling the skin and sinews of animals. In addition to providing structure, collagen also plays an essential role in tissue development and regulation.
When collagen is simmered, it forms gelatin. This hydrolysis of collagen is irreversible and results in the breakdown of long collagen protein fibrils into smaller protein peptides. However, its chemical composition is very similar to its parent molecule, collagen. Gelatin is what gives bone broth or stock its Jell-O-like consistency once it has cooled.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex carbohydrates that participate in many biological processes. They can attach to proteins to form proteoglycans, which are integral parts of connective tissue and synovial fluid, the lubricant that surrounds the joint. If the connective tissue, such as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage, is still attached, the bones in broth will provide our bodies with raw materials for skin, bone, and cartilage formation, including:
- Keratan sulfates
- Dermatan sulfates
- Chondroitin sulfates
- Hyaluronic acid
Glycine is an amino acid that makes up more than a third of collagen. It also acts as a neurotransmitter, binding to glycine receptors present throughout the nervous system and peripheral tissues. Signaling through this receptor is particularly important in mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the brainstem and spinal cord.
Proline is an amino acid that makes up about 17 percent of collagen. The addition of hydroxyl groups to proline significantly increases the stability of collagen and is essential to its structure. Though small amounts of proline can be manufactured in the body, evidence shows that adequate dietary proline is necessary to maintain an optimal level of this amino acid in the body. Proline is not typically thought of as a neurotransmitter, but it can weakly bind to glutamate receptors and glycine receptors.
Glutamine is another essential amino acid found in bone broth and is the most abundant amino acid in the blood. It is one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier. Intestinal epithelial cells and activated immune cells eagerly consume glutamine for cellular energy.
Inside the center cavity of the bone is the bone marrow, consisting of two types: red and yellow. Both types contain collagen.
Red bone marrow is the manufacturing site for new immune cells and red blood cells, while the yellow heart consists of healthy fats. It is thought that important nutritional and immune support factors might be extracted from marrow during cooking, but the bioavailability of these factors has not been studied.
Bone is also full of a variety of minerals, including:
An acidic medium is necessary to extract these minerals from your meal. When making broth, always add a splash of vinegar or other acids to obtain the most minerals from the bone.
At this point, I hope you have a solid understanding of the components of bone broth. Now, let’s get on to the health benefits.
Skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis, or upper layer, is made of keratinocytes and is largely responsible for skin barrier function. Underneath is the dermis, which is a dense matrix of collagen and GAGs that provides structural and nutritive support. Keratin, collagen, and GAGs are abundant in bone broth, particularly if the skin from the animal is included in the cooking process.
Multiple studies have shown that collagen and gelatin, which are both found in bone broth, can benefit your skin’s health. In a 2014 randomized and controlled trial, collagen consumption significantly improved skin elasticity and tended to improve skin moisture content. Collagen scaffolds are widely used in medical applications to promote tissue regeneration and heal wounds. One study in mice found that supplementing the diet with gelatin was even able to protect against UV-induced skin damage.
GAGs also offer additional skin benefits. The GAG hyaluronic acid has been shown to promote skin cell proliferation and increase the presence of retinoic acid, which improves the skin’s hydration. Dermatan sulfate has been shown to aid in cell turnover and wound repair.
Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health
Remember glycine, an amino acid that is particularly abundant in bone broth? Glycine plays a role in blood sugar regulation by controlling gluconeogenesis, the production of glucose in the liver, and has even been suggested to counteract some of the negative effects of dietary fructose consumption. Glycine has also been shown to reduce the size of heart attacks.
Furthermore, glycine balances out methionine intake. Muscle meats and eggs are high in methionine, an amino acid that raises homocysteine levels in the blood. High homocysteine is a significant risk factor for serious diseases like heart disease, stroke, mental illness, and fractures, and it increases our need for homocysteine-neutralizing nutrients like vitamins B6, B12, folate, and choline. People who eat lots of animal protein need adequate glycine to balance out the methionine from meat, and you’ll get that from bone broth. For more information, check out Denise Minger’s 2013 presentation in which she discusses this very issue.
Muscles and Performance
Glycine is also important for the synthesis of hemoglobin and myoglobin, which transport oxygen throughout the blood and muscle tissue, respectively. Glycine also increases creatine levels, which leads to an increase in anaerobic (high-intensity) exercise capacity and stimulates the secretion of human growth hormone, which may enhance muscle repair. Recent evidence suggests that proline may play a role in regulating the mTOR cellular signaling pathway, which integrates signals from nutrients, growth factors, stress factors, and cellular energy status to affect cell function and growth. Proline, together with other amino acids, activates mTOR, resulting in enhanced muscle protein synthesis.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical form of energy in the body that can be used to perform work. Phosphorus is required for the formation of this compound, and ATP cannot be biologically active unless it’s bound to a magnesium ion. Phosphorus deficiency has been shown to reduce muscle performance. Both phosphorus and magnesium are present in bone broth in modest amounts.
Bones and Joints
It should be pretty apparent that the best way to get the nutrients necessary to build bone is from consuming bone-based foods. Drinking bone broth provides all of the raw material for building healthy bones, including:
- Amino acids
- And more
A deficiency of the raw materials for making bone can result in some different conditions. For example, osteoporosis is associated with reduced levels of collagen and calcium in the bones. Of course, to keep your bones healthy, you’ll also need the nutrients required to support the building process, like vitamins D, K2, and C.
As for joint health, lubrication by GAGs is the key to a full range of motion. GAGs allow part of one bone to slide smoothly and painlessly over part of another. Sure, you could buy expensive supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate to keep your joints healthy, but why, when these and a host of other beneficial nutrients can easily be obtained from bone broth? After all, GAGs are not the only component of broth that improves joint health. Collagen may also benefit the joints. In one study, researchers found that athletes experienced less joint pain after taking collagen supplements.
A healthy colon contains a single, tight layer of epithelial cells, a thick mucus layer, and a diverse collection of microbes. Microbial dysbiosis and a thinning of this mucus layer can quickly compromise the integrity of the epithelial barrier and cause a leaky gut. In people with a leaky gut, microbes and dietary proteins can “leak” into the bloodstream and invoke an inflammatory response by the immune system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of bacterial cell walls, stimulates a particularly robust immune response.
Eating bone broth is an effective way to heal your gut. Gelatin absorbs water and helps maintain the layer of mucus that keeps gut microbes away from the intestinal barrier. In a mouse model, gelatin supplementation reduced the severity of colitis by strengthening the mucus layer and altering gut microbiota composition. Gelatin and glycine have also been shown to reduce the inflammation LPS causes. Glycine has been shown to protect against gastric ulcers as well. Glutamine also helps maintain the integrity of the gut mucosa and intestinal barrier.These are just a few reasons why nearly everyone should eat gelatin, glycine, and glutamine.
Bone broth has so many benefits to gut health that I had to make digestion its section. Drinking broth with meals is an excellent way to aid digestion. Glycine stimulates the production of stomach acid, which is essential for the proper absorption of any meal. Low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria) is surprisingly common in developed countries and can lead to some health issues, including heartburn and GERD.
Glycine is also an important component of bile acid, which is released to aid in the digestion of fats in the small intestine. Bile acid is important for maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. The presence of gelatin in the gut also draws fluid into the intestine, which improves gut motility and supports healthy bowel movements. Low blood levels of collagen have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
Detoxification, Liver Function, and Kidney Health
Recently, there has been some concern regarding bone broth and lead toxicity. However, the vitamins and minerals that are abundant in bone broth, and in Paleo diets in general, can protect against the harmful effects of environmental toxins like lead. Glycine also stimulates the production of glutathione, the body’s master antioxidant. In animal models, glycine has been shown to speed recovery from alcohol-induced fatty liver disease, protect liver cells against hypoxia, and improve survival after liver transplantation. In humans, glycine reduces oxidative stress in people with metabolic syndrome.
Proline plays a role in apoptosis, the process by which the body breaks down old cells, clears up waste products, and recycles raw materials for use in healthy cells. (Proline can scavenge free radicals, effectively acting as an antioxidant. Glutamine, on the other hand, serves as a nontoxic nitrogen transporter, carrying amine groups safely through the bloodstream to the kidney. In the kidney, the conversion of glutamine to glutamate regulates acid-base balance by producing ammonium.
Yes, bone broth may help improve eye health. The cornea consists of three primary layers:
- An outer epithelial layer
- A middle layer
- An inner endothelial layer
Hyaluronic acid stimulates proliferation of the epithelial cells that line the cornea and is commonly used during eye surgery to help replace lost fluids. The middle or stromal, the layer is made mainly of collagen, keratan sulfates, and chondroitin sulfates. Keratan sulfates have been shown to be essential to the transparency of the cornea, while chondroitin sulfate has been shown to influence the development of neural pathways in the retina. The amino acid glycine has also been shown to delay the progression of cataracts in a rat model of diabetes.
Numerous components of bone broth benefit the nervous system. The healthy fats in bone broth—particularly if it’s made with marrow bones—provide a source of fuel and raw material for the brain. After all, more than 60 percent of the human brain is composed of fat.
Glycine has been shown to protect against neuronal death after ischemic stroke, and likely plays a relevant role in the development of the brain in the womb and during the first few months after birth.
Calcium is essential for nerve conduction. When a nerve cell is stimulated, the influx of calcium triggers neurotransmitter release, allowing the signal to be passed on to the next nerve cell. Calcium deficiency affects this transmission and can result in symptoms of:
Lastly, chondroitin sulfate plays an important role in regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system, meaning it is essential for learning and memory.
Mood and Sleep
For some people, bone broth helps improve both mood and sleep. Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning it can:
- Decrease anxiety
- Promote mental calmness
- Help with sleep
One study found that three grams of glycine given to subjects before bedtime produced measurable improvements in sleep quality.
Unlike methionine, glycine does not compete with tryptophan for transport across the blood-brain barrier. Tryptophan is the precursor (raw material) for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that contributes to feelings of well-being. Serotonin, in turn, is a precursor to melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles. This is why a diet that includes bone broth and fattier cuts of meat can help prevent the depression and beat insomnia that some people experience when eating a food high in methionine-rich lean meat and eggs.
While ancient folk wisdom suggests that a hot cup of bone broth can help soothe the sick and cure a common cold, modern studies have confirmed that the components of bone broth can boost the immune system. For example, glycine receptors have been identified on the outer surface of several different types of immune cells. The effect is a dampening of the immune response, resulting in reduced inflammatory signaling molecules and oxidative stress that may reduce damage to lungs and other tissues. The GAG heparan sulfate has been shown to influence B cell function, T cell function, and macrophage activity.
Where to Source It
To summarize, there is an incredible number of bone broth benefits, and this hot drink is rooted in a long history of human use. It makes an excellent addition to any diet and can be used in a multitude of meals. When it comes to sourcing it, you can make your bone broth at home (our recipe), or you can purchase it pre-made. However, you choose to get your hands on this liquid gold, be sure to make bone broth a staple in your diet.
The homemade bone broth is simple to make. Ask your local farmers if they have soup bones, or roast a whole pastured chicken and save the bones for cooking broth. Chicken feet, chicken necks, calves’ feet, and marrow bones are particularly valuable additions to the broth.
The pre-made bone broth is also a good option. Just be sure to follow these steps when you shop.
Original Author: https://chriskresser.com/the-bountiful-benefits-of-bone-broth-a-comprehensive-guide/
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