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Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth GutStudy

 

Summary Report:

Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth GutStudy

KEY Personnel

Chief Investigator: A/Prof Karin Ried, PhD, MSc, GDPH, Cert Integ Med, Director of Research, NIIM

Research Assistants: Nikolaj Travica, BSc(Hons)

Junior research assistant: Bianca Fiasco, Michelle Brownstein ProfAvni Sali, Director NIIM

 

National Institute of Integrative Medicine (NIIM) 21 Burwood Rd

Hawthorn, VIC 3122Australia

Ph: 03 9912 9545

E: karinried@niim.com.au

 

Broth & Co Nellie Procopiou 0417001050

Nellie Procopiou brothandco@gmail.comwww.brothandco.com.au

 

Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth GutStudy

Aim

To assess the tolerability and efficacy of a freeze-dried Beef Bone Broth for gastrointestinaldisturbances.

Study design

Interventional single-arm pre-post study of 12 weeks duration investigating the tolerability andeffectiveness of the Broth & Co Beef Bone Broth on lower gastrointestinal disturbances in Australianadults.

Participants Inclusioncriteria

  • Adults with moderate gastrointestinal disturbances of the lower gastrointestinal

Sample size: n=30

Intervention/ Comparison

Month 1: 3-4 week run-in phase = control phase

Month 2+3: 2 x 5g Beef Bone Broth plain/ day (2x 1 tsp from 100g pouch) mixed in warm water, or mixed ina smoothie.

The Broth & Co Beef Bone Broth contains:                                 10g/day

Amino Acid Profile

Glycine

4.25 mg/g

42.5 mg

 

Glutamic Acid + Glutamine

2.68 mg/g

26.8 mg

 

Proline

Cystine + Cysteine

2.38 mg/g

33 μg/g

23.8 mg330 μg

Minerals

Calcium

17 mg/kg

0.17 mg

 

Magnesium

24 mg/kg

0.24 mg

 

Phosphorus

120 mg/kg

1.2 mg

 

PotassiumSodium

660 mg/kg

370 mg/kg

6.6 mg

3.7 mg

 

Sulfur

140 mg/kg

1.4 mg

 

Silicon

<10 mg/kg

< 0.1 mg

Proteins

Glucosamine Hydrochloride

<0.1 mg/mL

<1 mg

 

Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium

0.50 mg/mL

5 mg

 

Time line

 

 

 

 

| Run-in-phase | Intervention mth-1| Intervention mth-2     |

|       4 weeks    |       4 weeks           |   4 weeks                 | visit-1     v2                    v3        v4       

0                      4                             8                                12   wks timepoint month-1                      month-2                              month-3

Outcome measures

Primary(1),

Secondar

y (2)

Outcome measures

Sample

Tests

Equipment

Lab/ location

Time points

2

BMI, medication(muscle relaxers),Exercise, Diet incl food

triggers for symptoms

In person

Q

Demographic & history questionnaire, Diet, Exercisequestionnaire

Food triggers

Other symptoms

 

0, 4, 12 weeks

2

All: Stool Q

In person

Question

naires

Bristol stool chart

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

1

Group 2: IBS-Q-Symptoms, IBS-QoL

In person

Questionnaires

1. Birmingham IBS Symptoms Q, Roalfe 2008

3. IBS-QoL, Hahn 1997

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

2

Pain

In person

Question

naire

VAS 10-point Likert scale, location, type

of pain

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

1

Leaky gut /intestinalpermeability test

urine

Lactulose

/Mannitol

ratio

Urine test kit

Nutripath

0, 12 weeks

 

Small Intestinal permeability/ Leaky gut test:

The leaky gut urine test works on the principles of paracellular permeability or diffusion of different size sugar molecules through the gut lining in the small intestine (Mishra 2012).5 A high lactulose-to- mannitol ratio is indicative of increased small intestinal permeability or leaky gut, with lactulose being the larger disaccharide, and mannitol the smaller monosaccaride. The Lactulose-Mannitol test has a high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 54%, and high negative predictive value of 95% (Johnston 2000, Juby 1989).6,7

Mannitol smaller than lactulose

The Intestinal Permeability test directly measures the ability of two-non metabolised sugar molecules, mannitol and lactulose, to permeate the intestinal mucosa. Lactulose is only slightly absorbed and serves as a marker for mucosal integrity. Mannitol is readily absorbed andserves as a marker for transcellular uptake.

Low levels of mannitol and lactulose indicates malabsorption. Elevated levels of mannitol and lactulose are indicative of general increasedpermeability and “leaky gut”. Permeability to mannitol may decrease, which is indicative to malabsorption of small molecules.

L/M ratio

This explanation implies that healthy guts will absorb less L and more M, and that an inverse relationship between L and M exists.

Summary:

1. The Bone Broth significantly improved the severity (score) of symptoms after 8 weeks, includingconstipation, diarrhea, urgency, flatulence, and abdominal pain, overall score (p<0.0001).

2. The Bone Broth significantly improved symptoms associated Quality of Life, including emotional and mental health and wellbeing, sleep, energy, physical functioning, diet and social interactions (total score: p<0.001).

 3. The Bone Broth significantly improved upper GI symptoms, including indigestion,heartburn, regurgitation, and nausea (Leeds score, p<0.001).

 4. The Bone Broth improved stool consistency towards the ideal type 4 (yellow), from harder (orange/ red) and softer stool types (green/blue).

 5. Participants with hard/ constipation-like stools significantly improved (p<0.004), as well asparticipants with loose/ diarrhea-like stool types (p<0.015).

 6. The Bone Broth significantly improved stool frequency and regularity towards the ideal 1-2 times per

 7. Participants demonstrated a significant reduction in upper abdominal, lower abdominal    andother pain following the 8-week supplementation with Bone Broth. 

  8. The Bone Broth significantly improved intestinal permeability, including Lactulose Recovery by 33% (p=0.023), and Mannitol Recovery by 33% (p=0.006), in   those with elevatedlevels at baseline. The Lactulose/Mannitol Ratio improved by 25% in a small group (n=5), albeit not statistically significant.

Summary: Quotes

 Food triggers, especially gluten were able to be incorporated back into a number of participantsdiet with less or no symptoms

 Some participants noticed side effects initially when taking the Bone Broth such as increased flatulence,bad breath, bloating, stomach cramps and runny stools

 A number of participants found the Bone Broth difficult to take because they either found the tasteunpleasant or found it hard to dissolve

Summary for all participants (n= 28)

 At commencement of study 25 participants had one or more food triggers

FODMAP: There was an overall improvement in symptom severity for one or more FODMAP triggers for 83% of participants

Wheat/gluten: 36% of participants who had this food trigger improved during the study

Acidic/Spicy foods: 36% of participants with this trigger improved

Dairy: 27% of participants had improve tolerance of dairy products

Fatty Foods: 27% of participants with this food trigger improved

Alcohol: 36% of participants with this food trigger improved

Intestinal Permeability – Leaky Gut Report

Mannitol Lactulose Test

The permeation of water-soluble molecules through the intestinal mucosa can occur either though cells (transcellular uptake) or between cells (paracellular uptake). Small molecules (e.g. mannitol) readily penetrate cell and passively diffuse through them. Larger molecules such as disaccharides (e.g. lactulose) are normally excluded by cells. The rate limiting barrier in this case is the “tight junction” between cells. Thus, tight junctions help maintain epithelial integrity.

The Intestinal Permeability test directly measures the ability of two-non metabolised sugar molecules, mannitol and lactulose, to permeate the intestinal mucosa. Lactulose is only slightly absorbed and serves as a marker for mucosal integrity. Mannitol is readily absorbed and serves as a marker for transcellular uptake.

Low levels of mannitol and lactulose indicates malabsorption. Elevated levels of mannitol and lactulose are indicative of general increased permeability and “leaky gut”. Permeability to mannitol maydecrease, which is indicative to malabsorption of small molecules.

The lactulose/mannitol is a useful parameter. An elevated ratio indicates that the effective pore size of the gut mucosa has increased, allowing access to the body of larger, possibly antigenicmolecules.

Leaky Gut: Baseline – summary:

  • Three-quarters of the participants (n=18 out of 24, 75%) had intestinal permeability or leaky gut.
  • About half (n=11, 46%) had intestinal hyperpermeability (high Mannitol recovery).
  • A little less than a quarter (21%, n=4) of the participants had an elevated Lactulose/Mannitol Ratio which suggests increased pore size of the gut mucosa has increased, allowing larger, possibly antigenic moleculesto enter the

 The Bone Broth significantly improved intestinal permeability, including

Lactulose Recovery by 33% (p=0.023), and Mannitol Recovery by 33% (p=0.006), in those with elevatedlevels at baseline.

 The Lactulose/Mannitol Ratio improved by 25% in a small group (n=5), albeit not statistically significant.