Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth Gut Study

Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth Gut Study

 

Summary 

Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth GutStudy

KEY Personnel

Chief Investigator: A/Prof Karin Ried, PhD, MSc, GDPH, Cert Integ Med, Director of Research, NIIM

Research Assistants: Nikolaj Travica, BSc(Hons)

Junior research assistant: Bianca Fiasco, Michelle Brownstein

ProfAvni Sali, Director NIIM

National Institute of Integrative Medicine (NIIM) 21 Burwood Rd, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 Australia Ph: 03 9912 9545 E: karinried@niim.com.au

 Broth & Co 

Nellie Procopiou brothandco@gmail.com  

Effect of Broth & Co’s Beef Bone Broth on lower Gastrointestinal Disturbances: The Bone Broth GutStudy

The aim of the study was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of the Beef Bone Broth for gastrointestinal disturbances.

Study design included an interventional single-arm pre-post study of 12 weeks duration investigating the tolerability and effectiveness of the Broth & Co Beef Bone Broth on lower gastrointestinal disturbances in Australian adults.

Participants Inclusion criteria

  • Adults with moderate gastrointestinal disturbances of the lower gastrointestinal

Sample size: n=30

Intervention/ Comparison

Month 1: 3-4 week run-in phase = control phase

Month 2+3: 2 x 5g Beef Bone Broth plain/ day (2x 1 tsp from 100g pouch) mixed in warm water, or mixed in a smoothie.

The Broth & Co Beef Bone Broth contains:                                 10g/day

Amino Acid Profile

Glycine

4.25 mg/g

42.5 mg

 

Glutamic Acid + Glutamine

2.68 mg/g

26.8 mg

 

Proline

Cystine + Cysteine

2.38 mg/g

33 μg/g

23.8 mg330 μg

Minerals

Calcium

17 mg/kg

0.17 mg

 

Magnesium

24 mg/kg

0.24 mg

 

Phosphorus

120 mg/kg

1.2 mg

 

PotassiumSodium

660 mg/kg

370 mg/kg

6.6 mg

3.7 mg

 

Sulfur

140 mg/kg

1.4 mg

 

Silicon

<10 mg/kg

< 0.1 mg

Proteins

Glucosamine Hydrochloride

<0.1 mg/mL

<1 mg

 

Chondroitin Sulphate Sodium

0.50 mg/mL

5 mg

 

Time line included:

| Run-in-phase | Intervention mth-1| Intervention mth-2     |

|       4 weeks    |       4 weeks           |   4 weeks                 | visit-1     v2                    v3        v4       

0                      4                             8                                12   wks timepoint month-1                      month-2                              month-3

Outcome measures

Primary(1),

Secondar

y (2)

Outcome measures

Sample

Tests

Equipment

Lab/ location

Time points

2

BMI, medication (muscle relaxers), Exercise, Diet incl food triggers for symptoms

In person

Q

Demographic & history questionnaire, Diet, Exercisequestionnaire

Food triggers

Other symptoms

 

0, 4, 12 weeks

2

All: Stool Q

In person

Questionnaires

Bristol stool chart

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

1

Group 2: IBS-Q-Symptoms, IBS-QoL

In person

Questionnaires

1. Birmingham IBS Symptoms Q, Roalfe 2008

3. IBS-QoL, Hahn 1997

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

2

Pain

In person

Questionnaire

VAS 10-point Likert scale, location, type

of pain

NIIM

0,4,8,12 weeks

1

Leaky gut /intestinalpermeability test

urine

Lactulose

/Mannitol

ratio

Urine test kit

Nutripath

0, 12 weeks

 

Small Intestinal permeability/ Leaky gut test:

The leaky gut urine test works on the principles of paracellular permeability or diffusion of different size sugar molecules through the gut lining in the small intestine (Mishra 2012).5 A high lactulose-to-mannitol ratio is indicative of increased small intestinal permeability or leaky gut, with lactulose being the larger disaccharide, and mannitol the smaller monosaccaride. The Lactulose-Mannitol test has a high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 54%, and high negative predictive value of 95% (Johnston 2000, Juby 1989).6,7

Mannitol smaller than lactulose

The Intestinal Permeability test directly measures the ability of two-non metabolised sugar molecules, mannitol and lactulose, to permeate the intestinal mucosa. Lactulose is only slightly absorbed and serves as a marker for mucosal integrity. Mannitol is readily absorbed andserves as a marker for transcellular uptake.

Low levels of mannitol and lactulose indicates malabsorption. Elevated levels of mannitol and lactulose are indicative of general increased permeability and “leaky gut”. Permeability to mannitol may decrease, which is indicative to malabsorption of small molecules.

L/M ratio

This explanation implies that healthy guts will absorb less L and more M, and that an inverse relationship between L and M exists.

Summary:

1. The Bone Broth significantly improved the severity (score) of symptoms after 8 weeks, including constipation, diarrhoea, urgency, flatulence, and abdominal pain, overall score (p<0.0001).

2. The Bone Broth significantly improved symptoms associated Quality of Life, including emotional and mental health and wellbeing, sleep, energy, physical functioning, diet and social interactions (total score: p<0.001).

 3. The Bone Broth significantly improved upper GI symptoms, including indigestion,heartburn, regurgitation, and nausea (Leeds score, p<0.001).

 4. The Bone Broth improved stool consistency towards the ideal type 4 (yellow), from harder (orange/ red) and softer stool types (green/blue).

 5. Participants with hard/constipation-like stools significantly improved (p<0.004), as well as participants with loose/diarrhea-like stool types (p<0.015).

 6. The Bone Broth significantly improved stool frequency and regularity towards the ideal 1-2 times per

 7. Participants demonstrated a significant reduction in upper abdominal, lower abdominal and other pain following the 8-week supplementation with Bone Broth. 

  8. The Bone Broth significantly improved intestinal permeability, including Lactulose Recovery by 33% (p=0.023), and Mannitol Recovery by 33% (p=0.006), in those with elevated levels at baseline. The Lactulose/Mannitol Ratio improved by 25% in a small group (n=5).

Summary for all 28 participants 

 At commencement of study 25 participants had one or more food triggers

FODMAP: There was an overall improvement in symptom severity for one or more FODMAP triggers for 83% of participants

Wheat/gluten: 36% of participants who had this food trigger improved during the study

Acidic/Spicy foods: 36% of participants with this trigger improved

Dairy: 27% of participants had improve tolerance of dairy products

Fatty Foods: 27% of participants with this food trigger improved

Alcohol: 36% of participants with this food trigger improved

Intestinal Permeability – Leaky Gut Report - Mannitol Lactulose Test and how it works.

The permeation of water-soluble molecules through the intestinal mucosa can occur either though cells (transcellular uptake) or between cells (paracellular uptake). Small molecules (e.g. mannitol) readily penetrate cell and passively diffuse through them. Larger molecules such as disaccharides (e.g. lactulose) are normally excluded by cells. The rate limiting barrier in this case is the “tight junction” between cells. Thus, tight junctions help maintain epithelial integrity.

The Intestinal Permeability test directly measures the ability of two-non metabolised sugar molecules, mannitol and lactulose, to permeate the intestinal mucosa. Lactulose is only slightly absorbed and serves as a marker for mucosal integrity. Mannitol is readily absorbed and serves as a marker for transcellular uptake.

Low levels of mannitol and lactulose indicates malabsorption. Elevated levels of mannitol and lactulose are indicative of general increased permeability and “leaky gut”. Permeability to mannitol maydecrease, which is indicative to malabsorption of small molecules.

The lactulose/mannitol is a useful parameter. An elevated ratio indicates that the effective pore size of the gut mucosa has increased, allowing access to the body of larger, possibly antigenic molecules.

The Broth & Co Bone Broth significantly improved intestinal permeability, including

Lactulose Recovery by 33% (p=0.023), and Mannitol Recovery by 33% (p=0.006), in those with elevated levels at baseline.

 The Lactulose/Mannitol Ratio improved by 25% in a small group (n=5)